Accumulation of blood in the brain due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is called a subdural hematoma. Subdural hematomas occur because of trauma to veins and therefore can be chronic. During the aging process the size of the brain decreases, which is accompanied by stretching of the vein between its parenchyma and draining structures. Therefore, the vessels become sensitive to mechanical damage. In older people even a small head injury will promote the formation of subdural hematomas.
With the gradual accumulation of blood pressure on the nearby neural education may be the consequence of dementia. Developing associated neurological deficit, which depends on the localization and size of hematoma. For example, the left-sided accumulation of blood acts on speech centers, causing aphasia.
If you have a large accumulation often occurs the so-called wedging (asymmetry of the pupils, respiratory depression, drowsiness). Many people have a hematoma formed over many years, any symptoms are often absent.
Symptoms include disorders of speech and speech understanding, opustanje objects in hands, forgetfulness. These symptoms develop gradually. Further the patient becomes slightly disoriented in time, can live in the past, the judgment is adequate, the ability to count the saved, and the short-term memory is very impaired.
Chronic subdural hematoma is sometimes manifested by transient neurological symptoms that resemble stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Diagnose the disease
Diagnostic method is CT scan of the brain. It typically concave fluid accumulation in the brain, which is a symptom of a subdural hematoma. Chronic subdural hematoma slowly increases in size, symptoms increase with increasing size of the hematoma.
In the differential diagnosis involve Alzheimer’s disease, TIA, epidural hematoma, stroke, brain tumor, neurosyphilis.
Treatment depends on size of hematoma, the rate of increase, age and mainly involves surgical drainage to reduce pressure on the brain. For large hematomas is to open the skull (craniotomy, Burr hole), after which the possibility of such complications as cerebral edema and hypertension, the formation of the infectious process. If there is no chance for rehabilitation carried out palliative treatment.
Small subdural hematomas can heal by themselves.