Endemic goiter. Etiology, classification, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.

Lack of iodine. Endemic goiter is a disease in which the size of the thyroid gland becomes more normal due to a lack of iodine in the body.

Women are sick more often than men. After all, they need more iodine for the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The need for these hormones is especially high during puberty, during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.


Causes of iodine deficiency:

Its insufficient content in drinking water and food (above all, of course, in the water). In Russia, such a problem arose in the middle zone (for Эндемический зоб. Этиология, классификация, клиника, диагностика, лечение.example, in the Ryazan region, Moscow), as well as in the Caucasus, the Urals, and the Altai.
Malnutrition, which rarely consumes food rich in iodine (for example, seafood).
Continuous use of drugs that interfere with the normal absorption of iodine.
Heredity burdened by endemic goiter (pathological changes in genes).


This form of goiter is the following types (depending on the function of the gland):

  • Hyperthyroid – when, in addition to changing the volume of the gland, there is an increase in its function.
  • Hypothyroid
  • Euthyroid – with the normal functioning of the gland.

The goiter can be localized either only from one side of the thyroid gland, or from both (one and two-sided).


The most frequent complaints include:

  • Common weakness
  • Inability to tolerate normal physical activity
  • Discomfort behind the sternum
  • Headache

The listed signs arise even in the early stages of the process. With the growth of goiter, there are other symptoms, such as a feeling of squeezing the neck, a violation of swallowing, coughing (dry), choking.

With endemic goiter, the following complications can develop:

  • Compression of an enlarged gland of the trachea or esophagus
  • Development of a malignant neoplasm against a goiter
  • Inflammatory process in iron
  • Hemorrhages in the gland
  • The defeat of the heart (his heart is called “goiter”): his right divisions are increasing


The main method of diagnosis (instrumental) – ultrasound of the thyroid gland.


If small goiter, apply iodine and diet therapy (eating rich foods).
If the endocrine function of the affected organ decreases, hormone therapy is prescribed.
With large goitre, accompanied by compression of the neck (in particular, the trachea), the operation is shown.

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